## Null hypothesis (Ho): Population parameter EQUALS to a hypothesized value.

Only symbols of equivalence such as =, ≥ and ≤ might be used in the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis contains symbols that are contradictory to the null hypothesis such as ≠, < and >.

The table below simplifies the process of setting up the null and alternative hypothesis for one population mean and proportion:

Logic was one of my favorite subjects in university, and now I enjoy teaching it to my students. I especially love logic proofs, it is easy to understand and solve, once you get the hang of it (through practice, of course!).

This trick has become handy to me when grading students’ answer scripts

Simply press Ctrl / Shift to select all/any files needed (e.g. to open multiple answer scripts in Foxit Reader or Word, go to file>open>select one script and then press shift/ctrl and select the rest).

- For rational functions such as f(x) = 1/x, f(x) is undefined when x=0.
- For logarithms such as f(x) = ln x, f(x) is undefined when x≤0.
- For square root function such as f(x) = square root (x), f(x) is undefined when x<0.